An ancient Semite called out of ancient Babylon to serve the One God, and become the father of the nation of Israel.
The contract (or “promise”) God made with Abraham as recorded in the book of Genesis, in which He unconditionally promised to make him a great nation and gave him the Land of Israel and through him bless the whole world.
Means “Lord”; and since no Hebrew word for God is used by the Jewish people. They will often write God as G-d today. Since the Hebrew name of God, YHVH is not used by Jews because it is too holy to pronounce. They dropped the vowels probably before the time of Christ, only leaving the consonants. So that the word that is translated LORD, Jehovah, or Yahweh in our English Bibles is only an attempt to pronounce God’s name. Jewish people will after use the term Ha Shem, meaning the name, in place of God.
Means “going up”; making a first visit to Eretz Yisrael (Land of Israel); a pilgrimage.
Amillennialism is a system of theology that was established by Augustine is the 6th century. He build on the foundation formed by Origen in the 3rd century, that the interpretation of the Scriptures are to be from an allegorical (or spiritualized) method of interpretation. Basically it teaches that the Church is the Kingdom of God promised to Abraham and that the Millennial Reign of Christ is present now through the Church. It teaches that the Kingdom started at Christ’s first coming and that there is no literal 1000 years reign of Christ on the throne of David as promised to David in the Davidic Covenant. This teaching became the official position of the Roman Catholic Church and it also effected the end time views of the Protestant Reformers.
Attitudes and actions directed against the Jewish people.
Arabs are the descendents of Ishmael, basically from the Arabian Peninsula. Syrians, Egyptians, Iranians for example are not Arabs, but Syrians, Egyptians, Persians. What they share in common is the religion of Islam
Willow, one of the Four Species used in the ceremonial celebration of Sukkoth (see feast of Sukkoth).
Jewish person of Eastern ∓ Central European descent. (Poland, Russia, Germany, France). See also Sephardi.
Reconciliation with God through the expiation of sin. (see Yom Kippur and Leviticus 16).
Son of the Commandment, is a boy who has reached the age of religious maturity, age 13, culminating in a special ceremony. This is not biblical but traditional.
Daughter of the Commandment is a girl who has reached the age of maturity, 12 or 13, culminating in a special ceremony. This was originated in the 20th Century by the Reformed movement.
Beit ha-Mikdash or Beis ha-Mikdah
A Hebrew term for the Jerusalem Temple.
Means “sons of the covenant”; a Jewish fraternal organization founded in 1843.
Book of Life
Divine ledger in which the names of those who will be granted in life are recorded. See Rosh Hashana.
Was a first century Rabbinic term used by Yeshua in the third chapter of the New Testament book of John (John 3:3). Yeshua gave it a new meaning which was to receive salvation by trusting in Yeshua, hence becoming a “new creature” (2 Corinthians 5:17). See Edersheim vol. 1 pg 381-388
Covenant of Circumcision, which is performed on a male child on the 8th day from birth.
Is the Hebrew word for covenant.
Hebrew for “the New Covenant” or New Testament a phrase used by the prophet Jeremiah (Jeremiah 31:31). That which is also called the New Covenant by Christians is the 27 books of the New Testament.
Means “pious one”; follower of Chasidism, an ulta-orthodox sect of Judaism
From “Christos,” the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew term “Messiah (Mashiach).” Both words literally mean “Anointed One”. This was the word used in the Septuagint, an ancient Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures as prepared by Jewish translators three centuries before the time of Jesus. When early Christians believed they had found their Messiah, they naturally referred to him as “the Christ.” When Christians say “Jesus Christ” they are actually saying “Jesus the Messiah.”
According to the New Testament, this term was first used at Antioch to describe the Jewish faction that believed they had found the “Christ” (i.e., Messiah) in Yeshua. Today it means anyone who trusts in “the Christ” (i.e., Yeshua/Jesus) as his Savior. According to Jewish interpretation a Christian is someone who is born into a Christian home. Gentiles in general are considered Christian. If you not Jewish, your Christian.
Activism on the part of Christians toward the establishment and support of a homeland for the Jewish people.
1) an assembly of Christian believers. 2) All Christian believers everywhere. A Christian is one who has personally trusted by faith in Jesus, believing that He death on the cross as their substitute for sin and saviour from the penalty and power of sin and also believing that He was buried and rose again the third day from the grave.
Military campaigns on the part of “Christian” Europe to liberate Palestine from the hands of the Muslims between the years of 1096-1271. The fervor against the “infidel” Muslims easily spread to Anti-Jewish sentiments. Jewish money was confiscated to help defray the expenses of the Crusades. Jewish communities had to buy “protection” from their “Christian” overlords. The “Christian” armies while going through Europe, buried, murdered, destroyed whole Jewish communities as well as raping the women and stealing anything of value.
Is a legal agreement between two people. But God made four covenants by himself and not with another person. The Mosaic covenant is an example or a covenant between two parties. But the Abrahamic, Land, Davidic and New Covenants are examples made for others by God, hence making them unconditional. The second party who is the recipient of the covenant does not have to do anything for the benefits of the covenant.
This system of theology which represents the whole of Scripture as being covered by two (three) covenants: (1) the covenant of works; and (2) the covenant of grace. This covenant as it relations to Israel says that the church is Israel today. So they deny the distinctive of between Israel and the Church. All of the promises to Israel become the churches, but all the curses are Israel’s. To understand more of the differences between Covenant and Dispensational theology see Dr. Renald Showers book “There Really is a Difference” of Dr. Arnold Fruchtenbaum’s book “Israelology”.
(Lit. the scattering of seed) The “scattering” of the Jewish people across the earth primarily through the Assyrian, Babylonian and Roman captivities.
A theological view of the end time as held by many evangelicals, which divides the history of mankind into periods called dispensations, according the ways God related into Man in each period.
Dreidl, or Dreidel
A four-sided top with which games are played at Hanukkah.
This is a pluralistic belief that all religions will get to God. The Jews use it to tell Christians to stop evangelizing them. They will get to heaven by being good Jews, Christian by be good Christians, Moslems by be good Moslems etc. It is a belief system that is in total contradiction to the Hebrew Bible.
A cup of wine poured but not drunk during the Passover Seder, between the third and fourth cups.
Hebrew for “the Land of Israel”the Promised Land as given to Israel by God.
A Jewish girl who became the Queen of Persia and thus had opportunity to overturn a wicked plot to destroy the Jewish people. Also, the book of the Bible by the same name, which describes these events and the establishment of the holiday, see Purim.
The citron, one of the Four Species used in the ceremonial celebration of Sukkoth. (see Feast of Sukkoth).
The word “evangelical” comes from the word “euangelion,” which means “Good News,” or “Gospel.”. Briefly stated, an evangelical is a Christian who believes, lives and wants to share the gospel message.
A Middle-Eastern snack made of balls of chick pea mush, which are then deep fried and typically served in a pita with a variety of toppings. Falafel is widely available in Israel and has often been called the “national snack.”
Arba’ah minim four plants used in the ceremonial celebration of Sukkoth, including the lulav (palm branch), etrog (citron), hadas (myrtle) and aravah (willow). Based on Biblical requirement regarding the “Fruit of goodly trees” in Leviticus 23:40. (see Feast of Sukkoth).
(Lit. “Completion”) A compilation of rabbinical commentaries from the 3rd to the 5th centuries on the Mishnah, which is the core of the Talmud written down by A.D. 500. See Also Talmud.
A portion of a city in which Jews were required to live separately from the general populace.
(Literally “good news,” a literal translation of the Greek word “euangelion.”) The story of Yeshua who “died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and . . . was buried and . . . rose again the third day according to the Scriptures.” (I Corinthians 15:3,4)
Are Gentile(s), non-Jews. The plural form “goyim” is used in the Hebrew Bible of “nations” in general. Later came to mean all other nations (besides Israel), and thence to individuals outside the fold of Israel.
Traditional noisemaker used at Purim to drown out the name of Haman.
Myrtle, one of the Four Species used in the ceremonial celebration of Sukkoth. (see Feast of Sukkoth).
Means, “the Telling” of the Passover story. Also the ritual manual used for the Passover Seder meals.
Means “the way” or “walk”; tradition, practice, rule in Judaism A general term for the proscriptive material in the Talmud. (The parts that tell you what to do as opposed to the story parts). See also Aggadah.
A special sweet, braided braid served in pairs of loaves and traditional for the Sabbath.
The villain in the story of Esther, who plotted the extermination of the Jewish people.
A traditional three-cornered pastry associated with Purim. Sometimes called “Haman’s Hats.” In Israel, they are called “Ozney Haman,” or “Haman’s Ears!”
Terrorist group founded in 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Principal political rival Arafat’s Fatah (PLO) organization. Has tens of thousands of Palestinian supporters and sympathizers, but number of hard-core terrorists is unknown.
An eight-day holiday commemorating the rededication of the Jewish Temple. (see Feast of Hanukkah)
Hebrew for Hill of the House, the Temple Mount.
One of the dishes featured in the Passover Seder, typically made with apples, nuts, honey, cinnamon, lemon juice, and wine to represent the mortar used by the Jewish slaves in Egypt.
“The name”, Hebrew alternative for the divine name (also see Adonai).
Hasidim (plural); means “pious one”; follower of Hasidism
Jewish sect of the second century BC opposed to Hellenism and devoted to Strict observance of ritual law; also Jewish mystical sect founded in Poland about 1750 in opposition to rationalism and ritual laxity. They are none by causal observers for their side curls, black coat and hats.
“The Hope”; Israel’s national anthem.
1) The ancient language of the Jewish people, and the modern language of the State of Israel. 2) An Israelite
A book in the New Testament (Brit ha-Hadashah), addressed to Jewish believers in Yeshua. Also the people who are descendents of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
An umbrella organization of various radical Shiite groups, formed following the 1982 Peace for Galilee War conducted under Ariel Sharon to force the PLO, a terrorist organization, from Lebanon. The war succeeded only in part. On Israel’s departure from Lebanon (under foreign pressure), they maintained, at the request of the south Lebanese, a buffer zone south of the Litani River in Lebanon to protect the panhandle of Israel and the civilian population living there. That buffer zone was patrolled by the Israeli army and the South Lebanese forces, loyal to Israel. Roadside bombs and other attacks are conducted against the Israeli and South Lebanese forces in this zone. In 2000 the Israeli army pulled out of Lebanon.
(from the Greek term for a burnt offering). The systematic Nazi destruction of European Jewry which began in 1933 when Adolph Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany. This tragic event reduced the world’s Jewish population by over one third.
Bridal canopy (sometimes a large Tallit is used) denoting God’s presence in the new home, and a of the Temple In Jerusalem; symbolic of God’s dwelling pace with man. The Huppah can be held by four men holding poles at each of the four corners.
A tribunal once set up by the Roman Catholic Church, intended to weed out heresy from the realms of Christendom. Many Jews lost their homes, livelihoods and their lives in this age of intolerance, as did many gentiles believers who did not confess to the official doctrines of the established Church.. For the Jewish people this resulted in the expulsion of the entire Jewish populace from Spain in 1492 and Portugal in 1496.
A chapter of the Hebrew Bible which refers to the Messiah.
In Hebrew Yerushalayim. The capital of Israel since it was taken from the Jebusites by King David (2 Samuel 5:6-10).
The name of a first century Jew of the Second Temple Period known more fully as Yeshua benYosef ha-Notzri, the adopted son of a carpenter from Nazareth, hailed by his followers as the promised Jewish Messiah and Savior of the World.
From Greek Ioudaios, someone from Judea or “Judah.” From the Greekmeaning one from Judea or Judah. The term Jew comes from the word Judah, and Judah comes from the Hebrew “Yehudah” meaning, “may God be praised”.Later used of anyone descended from Israel. In modern usage, according to halakhah, one is a Jew if one has Jewish parents (at least a Jewish mother), or has undergone conversion in accordance with Jewish law.
First century Jewish historian. One of the principal extra-biblical historical sources of information for the Second Temple / New Testament period. Josephus was present and witnessed the destruction of Jerusalem and the Temple by the Romans in 70 CE.
Hebrew Yehudah. 1) One of the 12 patriarchs (sons of Israel). 2) The tribe descended from him. 3) That tribe’s allotment in the promised land. 4) After the political division of the country following Solomon’s reign, the Southern Kingdom, consisting of the tribes of Benjamin and Judah.
The religious system of the Jewish people, centered on the belief in One God and his Covenant with the Jewish people as described in the Torah.. See also Talmud and Rabbinic Judaism.
Means “to receive”; literally, “the received or traditional lore”(see Cabala). This is a esoteric or mystic doctrine concerning God and the universe, asserted to have come down as a revelation to elect saints from the remote past, and preserved only by a privileged few. It can be said that this is Jewish Mysticism.
Jewish sect of the middle ages which accepted the Hebrew Bible and its Law and rejected the Talmud and Rabbinic Law. At one time their were a real threat to Rabbinic Judaism, but today there are only a handful left.
Community or Congregation, Synagogues and Messianic churches are often called kehilot (plural of kehilah).
The division of the Hebrew Scriptures called the Writings (Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Song of Songs, Ruth Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and I ∓ II Chronicles).
A (usually) rural community in Israel based on communal property, in which members have no private property but share the work and the profits of some collective enterprise, typically agricultural but sometimes also industrial..
Hebrew name for the skull cap worn by observant Jewish males. Also known by it’s Yiddish name, yarmulke. This is a rabbinic custom started around the 10th century. Today, Orthodox and many Conservative Jews believe that covering the head is an expression of yirat Shama’yim (“Fear of God” or “reverence for God”).
Special white garment worn on special occasions such as Pesach (Passover) or Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), reminiscent of the garment the priest would have worn in Temple times
Hebrew prayer meaning “all vows” which ushers in Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement.
Clean, acceptable food in accordance with Jewish Law, especially excluding pork and shellfish (Deuteronomy 14:3-21). Kosher is that which is biblically kosher, but it also includes that which is rabbinic kosher, such as the rabbinic laws on the separation of meat and dairy products by at less four hours.
Potato pancakes traditional at Hanukkah, often served with applesauce or sour cream.
Means: “to life” or “to health” (a toast or salute)
The first day of the week (Sunday), as the day the Lord Yeshua was raised from the Dead. Celebrated as a day of worship by most Christians since early times.
The palm branch, one of the Four Species used in the ceremonial celebration of Succoth. (see Feast of Succoth)
Literally meaning the “shield of David,” the Hebrew name for the familiar six-pointed star which has become a universal sign of Judaism. Featured on the modern Israeli flag.
Flat, unleavened bread used during the Passover.
Legislation enacted in Russia, May 1882, prohibiting the Jewish people from living in or acquiring property except in predetermined locales. Repealed in effect in 1915, and legally in 1917 after the Russian revolution. The May Laws caused local expulsions and intolerable overcrowding and economic hardship, leading to massive Jewish emigration.
“Good Luck” or “Congratulations”
Means “anointed one”; Messiah. It is used of kings, priests, and prophets when they are anointed by God. But the one who the Jewish people believe will be the “Meshiach” will be there deliverer, who will bring Peace on the earth.
A person by their speech or actions that is not quite normal. Crazy.
Literally “one deserving of extinction.” One who “converts” to Christianity. A heretic and traitor to Judaism.
The long-awaited deliverer of the Jewish people, as was foretold by the Hebrew prophets. Jewish Orthodox people believe in two different and distinct Messiah’s coming two different times. They call them Messiah ben Joseph, the suffering Servant, and Messiah ben David, the reigning King who will bring peace to the world. Reform Judaism believes only in a Messianic age, not personal Messiah at all. No one in Judaism believes that the Messiah is divine or God, they consider that to be idolatry. In Christianity we believe the Messiah is one person who will come twice. We also believe that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah of Israel and fulfilled all the first coming references of Messiah in His suffering an death as our substitute on the Cross. Will come again in the Second Coming to rescue Israel from doom at the hands of the anti-Christ, but only when they repent and call on Him to come.
Messiah ben David (see Messiah ben Joseph)
Messiah ben Joseph
Because the Rabbis of old saw the passages that dealt with a suffering Messiah and the passages that deal with a reigning Messiah they came up with this view. That Messiah ben Joseph would come first and fight the battles for freedom and peace but would suffer and die. Then would come Messiah ben David who would usher in the promised kingdom. They did then and do now view two separate Messiahs. In Christianity Jesus is viewed as one Messiah who comes twice, once to suffer and die and later to reign upon the throne of his father David.
Pertaining to the person or concept of “Messiah.” (q.v.) Jewish people who believe Yeshua to be the Messiah sometimes use this term to describe their particular kind of faith. It is the etymological equivalent of the word Christian, which is derived from Christos the word used by ancient Greek-speaking Jews for Messiah.
A time of peace and prosperity that was foretold by the Hebrew prophets. Traditional thinking is that Messiah will bring this about. Reform Judaism holds this to be an ideal to be reached through human endeavor, and does not expect a personal Messiah at all. Orthodox and most Conservative Jews believe the Messiah to be a person, but not divine. We who believe in him believe that Yeshua ha-Mashiach will usher in the Messianic Age when he returns at the Second Coming to set up the Millennial Kingdom.
A small, elongated decorative box, usually of metal or ceramic attached to the doorframe of a Jewish home. Inside the mezuzah is a tiny handwritten scroll on which are writtenDeuteronomy 6:4-9 and 11:13-21. Both of these passages mentioned are the writings of the precepts of God on the doorposts. The mezuzah is a way of fulfilling this literally. (See also tefillin).
Rabbinical Commentary on the Torah
Means “immerse”, ritual bath of purification.
A Latin based word literally meaning a period of a thousand years. This will be the period of time for the “thousand year” reign of the Messiah, a time of universal peace and prosperity on the earth that was promised to Israel by the prophets. (Rev. 20, Isaiah 11, Ezekiel 40-48, etc.)
Quorum needed for any service (10 men, 13 years or older)
This is the name of Mary the mother of Jesus when you name goes from Hebrew, to Greek, to Latin, and finally to English.
During the years between the two Testaments a group of Jewish men called Sophim developed rules of how to observe the Law of God. Later in the 1st and 2nd centuries another group of men called the Tannim continued the process until it was written down in 22O CE by Rabbi Yehuda ha Nasi. This compilation of the rabbinical oral laws or traditions is also known are the Oral Law. This oral law was the authoritative source of halacha or Jewish law, supposedly second only to the Bible itself. See also Gemara, Talmud
Command; commonly used to mean “a good deed”.
Moshe ben Maimon
A Rabbi of the 12th century living in Egypt during the time of the Crusades. It is said, “From Moses to Moses there Was none like unto Moses.” This statement means that Maimonides is to be regarded as the greatest figure in Jewish history since the man who delivered the Ten Commandments to the Jewish people. In fact, the spiritual development of Judaism up to the present age is incomprehensible without taking account of Maimonides; activities as a codifier, judge and commentator of the Bible and the Talmud. He is also the author of the 13 Articles of Faith.
Person who performs religious circumcisions on baby boys 8 days after birth.
The closing service of Yom Kippur, which ends with a blast of the shofar and the exclamation “Next Year in Jerusalem!”
The second division of the Hebrew Scriptures called the Prophets (Joshua, Judges, I ∓ II, Samuel, I ∓ II Kings, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi).
The prophet Jeremiah predicted a time when God would make a “New Covenant” with Israel, unlike the first Covenant made at Sinai.
A collection of documents composed within the first two or three generations after Yeshua. Comprised the four Gospels (biographies of Yeshua), a history of the early church (book of Acts). Several letters from the apostles addressed to various churches and addressing assorted issues of concerns (Pauline ∓ General Epistles), and the book of John’s vision of things to come (Revelation). These documents compose the teachings of Yeshua and the Apostles of Messiah for the Church.
Nicea, Council of
A council of the early church that convened at Nicea in the year 325, in which (among many other decisions) Jewish and Gentile Christians were prohibited from celebrating the Passover.
Oral instruction beyond the written Torah, which was written down in the Mishnah (core of the Talmud) and is considered by Jewish people as authoritative, equal to the Scriptures. The Rabbinic authorities use this argument to substantiate the Oral Law being as weighty as Scripture. They teach that Moses received more from God than the written Torah on Mt. Sinai, he also received the Oral Law which was memorized, taught to Joshua, who taught it to the Judges, who then taught it to the Prophets and finally to the Sophim. This Oral Law is the central reason why Yeshua and the Pharisees were at odds.
The Palestinian Authority of the “West Bank” headed up by Yasser Arafat.
A name given to Israel by the Romans after the second conquest of Judea in 135 CE. It is derived from the word “Philistines,” a people who had occupied the coastal areas of the land in ancient times, but who had long since passed from history.
Is a celebration on the 15th of Nisan (March/April), of the liberation of the Jewish people from their bondage in Egypt as described in the book of Exodus. This has been celebrated around the world in Jewish homes for over 3400 years.
Hebrew for “Passover”
The three of the seven feasts of Lord required a pilgrimage to Jerusalem by all who were able. These are Passover, Shavuot and Succoth.
Organized massacres of Jewish communities carried out in 19th century in Poland and Russia. Organized and carried out by the government and often lead by the Orthodox Church.
Postmillennialism is that system of theology which “teaches that the Second Coming of Christ will follow the thousand years of peace and righteousness” (Charles Ryrie, The Basis of the Premillennial Faith, pg 13). “Postmillennialism holds that the present age will end with a period of great spiritual blessing corresponding to the millennial promises accomplished through preaching the gospel. The whole world will be Christianized and brought to submission to the gospel before the return of Christ” (Walvoord, Millennial Kingdom, pg. 7).
Premillennialism is a system of theology “which holds the doctrine that the second coming of Christ precedes the millennium” (Charles Feinberg, Premillennialism or Amillennialism, pg 1). Premillennialism “is the teaching that Christ will reign on earth for one thousand years following His second advent. Premillennialism as a term derives its meaning from the belief that the second coming of Christ will be before this millennium and therefore pre-millennial” (John Walvoord, Millennial Kingdom, pg 5). There are two other positions on the timing of Christ second coming, the first is Amillennialism and the second is Postmillennialism.
The Jewish holiday observed each year on the 14th of Adar (Feb-March), celebrating the deliverance of the Jewish people from the wicked Haman in the days of Queen Esther of Persia, as described in the book of Esther.
A term used among evangelicals to denote a time set aside for personal meditation and communion with God.
Rabbinic Judaism is different from Biblical Judaism. Much of the teaching and customs of the Jewish people today are not biblical but Rabbinic. Rabbinic Judaism has been a process that has been going on since the inter-testament period (400 BCE to 600 CE). With the rabbis adding to what has become known as the Talmud with the thousands of rules and regulations added by these ancient rabbis which has supplanted the authority of the Hebrew Bible.
This is a term use for Moses ben Maimon (1135-1204) of the 12th century. It was said of him, from Moses to Moses there is none like unto Moses”. This simply means that Maimonides is to be regarded as the greatest figure in Jewish history since the man who delivered the Ten Commandments to the Jewish people. He is also the author of the 13 Articles of Faith, which are theological statements directed against Christianity.
The supernatural “catching up” of all believers into the air to meet Yeshua/Jesus when he comes for His church, as taught in First and Second Thessalonians. (1 Thess-alonians 4:17). There are three views on when the Rapture of the church occurs: (1) Pretribulational rapture, means that Christ will return for His church before the Tribulation begins. (2) Midtribulational view means that Christ will return for His church in the middle of the Tribulation period. (3) Posttribulational view means that Christ will return for His church at the end of the Tribulation period. The Rapture of the Church and the Second Coming of Christ are two separate events.
This is a term used for Solomon ben Isaac of the 11th century and is called the world greatest commentator; his notes on Bible are recorded in the Talmud in virtually every part of the text of the Talmud.
One of the three major branches of Judaism, and the most liberal.
A Chapter of the New Testament written by the apostle Paul, in which he upholds the continuing importance of the Jewish people in God’s plan for the universe.
Another title for the Messiah as the one who saves men’s souls.
Second Temple Period
This period is from rebuilding the Temple after the return from captivity in Babylon in 516 BCE through the destruction of Herod’s Temple in 70 CE by the Romans.
Hebrew word for “order” A ceremonial meal eaten at Passover.
This word is the ancient Biblical name “Sepharad”, which came to be associated with Spain. Pertaining to Jews whose ancestors came from Spain and Portugal before the expulsion of the Jews from those lands in 1492 and 1496. They mostly immigrated to North Africa and to the new world in South America.
Hebrew for “Sabbath”
Shabbes / Shabbos
Yiddish for “Sabbath”
Hebrew word for Peace, (used as Hello, and Goodbye)
“Peace be unto you”
Means “servant”; the caretaker or sexton of the synagogue or temple; also the center candle of the 9 branch Hanukkah Menorah.
One of the three Pilgrim Festivals required in the Torah. Also known as The Feast of Weeks and Pentecost, celebrated seven weeks after Passover.
Jewish affirmation of faith (Deuteronomy 6:4), recited morning and evening by religious Jews and during all worship services.
The Hebrew term for the Holocaust.
A ram’s horn. The rams horn makes a very impressive noise, and has been used since ancient times to summon troops to battle or the people to assemble. Also used to mark approach of Sabbath and other Holy Days. Especially associated with Rosh Hashana.
Another word for an Orthodox of Chasidic synagogue, from the German word for School; it indicates that the chief purpose of the synagogue is for the study of the Law (Torah).
Rejoicing over the Law. Marks the conclusion of the public reading of the Torah in the Synagogue each year.
Prayer book (contains prayers, Scripture, order of services).
After the return from captivity in Babylon, Ezra the Scribe set up what was known as the School of the Sophim. This was to teach the scribes that Law so they could teach the people so that they would know the Law and obey it. However the generation that followed Ezra began to teach that they must build a fence around the Law of rules and regulations, the thought being that the people might then back the fence about the Law but not brake the Law itself. When all the scribes and later the rabbis agreed on a new rule or regulation it became binding. After the Sophim came the Tannim in the first century CE. They did the same thing but added one point. All that processed them that was done by the Sophim was made equal in authority to the Hebrew Scriptures. They and then later the Gemara added hundreds of new laws, rules and regulations. This later became known as the Talmud. One illustration of what they did with the 613 Laws of God. There is one that says, “Thou shalt keep the Sabbath day holy”. Meaning that no work was to be done on the Sabbath. Over the course those years as the fence was build around that Law, in the Talmud, by added 1500 new laws, rules and regulations to God’s one Law. They did this with all of the 613 Laws of Moses given at Mt. Sinai.
An Israeli jelly doughnuts eaten at Hanukkah.
A temporary “booth” or shelter made for the holiday of the Feast of Sukkoth (or Tabernacles). It is used to eat meals and for sleeping and so on during the feast.
Literally means “booths.” One of the three Pilgrim Festivals marked by the building of makeshift shelters called “Succoth” to commemorate the wandering of the Israelites in the wilderness on the way to the Promised Land. In the Hebrew scriptures it is known as the Feast of Tabernacles.
Means “assembly”; this word usually indicates neither Orthodox or Conservative Judaism.
From Latin tabernaculum, “tent.” The word is used in many English translations of the Torah for the Tent of Meeting, the portable forerunner of the Temple, which God commanded Moses to build when the Israelites were wandering in the Wilderness. This word is also used for sukkah, a temporary structure built yearly for the holiday of Sukkoth, which is therefore also called The Feast of Tabernacles.
Tallit, or “tallis”
The prayer shawl worn by Jewish men during prayer in synagogue or at home.
Means “study”; the oral traditions, discussions and instructions of the great rabbis and scholars of Judaism. Written in two divisions. The Mishnah and Gemara taken together equal the Talmud. This system of comments when completed became more important then the scriput5es upon which it was based – thus began Talmudic or Rabbinic Judaism, culminating in what we call Orthodox Judaism.
The Jewish Scriptures, which is exactly the same as the Protestant “Old Testament”. The Hebrew term is an acronym derived from the Hebrew words Torah, Nevi’im and Ketuvim; i.e., The Law, The Prophets and the Writings (poetry and wisdom literature) (Compare the New Testament term, “the Law and the Prophets” to stand for the Scriptures as a whole)
Aramaic Paraphrases from before the time of Messiah
A Rosh Hashana service in which observant Jews go to a body of water such as a stream or an ocean. Then toss the contents of their pockets into it while reciting passages such as Micah 7:19, (“And thou wilt cast (Tashlikh) all their sins into the depths of the sea.”) as a symbol of sin being swallowed up in forgiveness.
The holy place of worship in Jerusalem, which replaced Moses Wilderness Tabernacle on land purchased for it by King David, and originally built by Solomon. In Reform Judaism, this word can also mean synagogue.
The artificially expanded hill in Jerusalem, on which the first and second temples stood, now occupied by the Muslim Dome of the Rock.
The “Ninth of Av”. A Jewish holy day commemorating the destruction of the First Temple in 586 BC by Nebuchadnezzar King of Babylon. (Zech. 7:5, 8:19) According to tradition, it was on this same date in 70 AD that the Romans under Titus destroyed the Second Temple. Many other national disasters have been associated with this date, including the Spanish Inquisition and the Holocaust, and so Tish’a b’Av has come to stand for national calamity in general.
The Pentateuch. The first five books of the Bible. Literally “teaching” or “instruction” or “guidance.” Often translated “the Law” in English Bibles, as in “the Law of the LORD is perfect” (Psalm 19:7 [verse 8 in Hebrew]). This is also an elastic term, which can also mean a single point of teaching to the whole of the Hebrew Bible, and the Oral Law.
A Yiddish word meaning unacceptable food, non-kosher, not in accordance with God’s food laws.
This term originates from the Hebrew Scriptures, principally from the 70 weeks of Daniel (see Daniel (9:24-27). This is commonly understood to be the 70th week of Daniel, which is referred to in Hebrew Scripture as the “Day of the Lord”, and in the New Testament in the book of Revelation as the 7 year period of judgment on the earth, and the purifying, purging process upon Israel to prepare them to look unto and call upon Messiah Jesus in repentance to come and save them. The Tribulation starts with the signing of a 7-year covenant with the anti-Christ and will end with Israel calling for the return of Jesus, which will be His Second Coming. The Second Coming is not the Rapture of the Church they are two different events regardless of your position on the tribulation.
A minor Jewish holiday marking the blossoming of the first trees and the beginning of spring. Also known as Hag ha-Ilanot, or “New Year of the Trees”
See Western Wall
A portion of the western retaining wall built by Herod when he renovated the Temple Mount, regarded by the Jewish people as a holy place owing to its proximity to the site of the Holy of Holies on the platform above it.
The irrational fear of strangers or of persons different from yourself. One of the roots of Anti-Semitism.
A Yiddish word for the skull-cap worn by observant Jewish males. See also kippah.
A orthodox religious school of higher learning for the study of the Talmud.